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CA Spectrum - 10.3
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How to Discover and Model the Network

Last update June 29, 2018

CA Spectrum is a services and infrastructure management system that monitors the state of managed elements including devices, applications, host systems, and connections. CA Spectrum includes a number of client applications. OneClick is the client application that provides the graphical user interface to monitor the network and launch other client applications. You can create and maintain the software models of a network by using the modeling features of OneClick.

This scenario describes how a network administrator uses the Discovery utility of OneClick to define and discover models that represent entities in the IT infrastructure.

The OneClick client application provides the graphical user interface to monitor the network and launch other client applications. Run the Discovery utility of OneClick to define and discover models that represent entities in the IT infrastructure.

The following diagram describes how to use Discovery:

Discover and Model the Network

Create a Network Container

A container represents the group of devices that you want to model. Containers help you monitor and manage the health of the devices that they represent. Create a container in the Universe topology.

Follow these steps:

  1. Expand <usxxyyzz> on the Explorer tab in the OneClick Navigation pane and select Universe.

    The <usxxyyzz> hierarchy identifies the local SpectroSERVER landscape.

  2. Click Topology in the Contents pane.
  3. Click the Model by Type icon, select Network, and click OK.
  4. Complete the following fields in the Create Model of Type Network dialog:

    Name - Defines the unique host name for the device that you are modeling.(Optional)
    Network Address - Specifies the IPv4 or IPv6 address for the device that lets CA Spectrum communicate with the device.
    (Optional) Security String - Specifies the security for the device. Adding a security string prevents certain users from viewing the model.
    (Optional) Subnet Mask - Specifies the device subnet address that the container represents. When specified, the subnet address label appears whenever a user points the mouse to a container icon in a topology view.

  5. Click OK.

Define the Discovery Configuration

Discovery uses a set of configuration parameters that you can define to determine the network entities to discover and model.

Follow these steps:

  1. Click the network container on the Topology tab.
  2. Right-click on the selected container and select Utilities, Discovery Console.
  3. Type a name for the configuration.
  4. Select a landscape.
  5. Specify the folder in which the new configuration must be created.
  6. Click OK.

    The procedures that follow let you configure the parameters.

Populate the Seed Routers List

Note: The Seed Routers section is optional. We recommend that you populate the seed routers list for large Discovery operations.

Seed routers are a list of core routers that Discovery uses as a starting point when determining the routed subnets. All routers that are discovered within the IP / Host Name Boundary List are treated as seed routers. Add the seed routers list to let Discovery determine the routed subnets from the list.

Follow these steps:

  1. Type an IP address or host name in the Seed Routers section and click Add.
  2. (Optional) To create a range of IP addresses or host names, repeat Step 1.
  3. Select one of the following options from Discovery Type:

    Routers only - Discovers the routing devices within the IP address range or host names.Routers and only local LANs in IP/Host Name Boundary ListDiscovers the routed subnets within the IP range or host name.
    Routers and all local LANs - Discovers the subnets that are routed by the routers that are discovered within the IP range or host name.

  4. If you selected 'Routers and only local LANs in IP/Host Name Boundary List' or 'Routers and all local LANs', select one of the following options:

    • Scan Subnets Using ICMP/SNMP Sweep - Scans the subnets that use ICMP or SNMP sweep. If you select this option, set the maximum subnet size in the counter.
    • Discover Subnets Using - Discovers the subnets that use the following tables:
      • ARP tables - Specifies that the subnet uses the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) tables.
      • Cisco CDP tables - Specifies that the subnet uses the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) tables.

Define the Host Names and IP Addresses

The IP / Host Name Boundary List field populates with an IP range when you start Discovery with a container selected from the Topology tab. Import the host names, IP addresses, or IP address ranges from a file on the OneClick web server.

Follow these steps:

  1. Click Import in the IP / Host Name Boundary List section.
  2. Select ‘One Click web server host’ from 'Import file location'.
  3. Type the path to the text file containing the host names or IP addresses in one of the following formats:

    Microsoft Windows: C:\Program Files\Spectrum\IP_Files\core_network_ips

    Linux: /usr/Spectrum/IP_Files/core_network_ips

  4. Click OK.

Define the SNMP Information

Import an ordered list of SNMP community strings for SNMP v1, SNMP v2c, or profiles for SNMP v3.

Follow these steps:

  1. Create a text file that lists each SNMP community string and profile in the following format:
    <name>v<SNMP_version>
    

    Defines the SNMP community string.Defines the applicable SNMP version.

    Note: The version number for SNMPv1 community strings is optional.

    Examples: SNMPv1publicpublic,v1Example: SNMPv2public,v2Example: SNMPv3public,v3

  2. Click Import in the SNMP Information section.
  3. Select the text file that you created in Step 1.
  4. Click Open.

Define the Modeling Options

Define the modeling configuration settings to combine the Discovery and modeling sessions.

Follow these steps:

  1. Select ‘Discover and automatically model to SPECTRUM’.
  2. Click Modeling Options.
  3. Specify the destination container by performing the following steps:
    1. Click Destination Container.
    2. Select the topology view container to place the discovered models.
    3. Click OK.
  4. Configure the modeling layout by performing the following steps:
    1. Select one of the following options from Placement to specify where models appear in the topology:

      Flat Discovery places all devices, including Layer 1 and Layer 2 in the Destination Container; no LAN containers are created.
      Hierarchical Discovery places all Layer 3 devices, LAN containers, and Wide Area Links in the Destination Container. Layer 1 and Layer 2 devices are placed in the proper LAN container (based on IP address) under the Destination Container. If Discovery cannot find the appropriate LAN container for Layer 1 or Layer 2 devices, these devices are placed in the Destination Container.

    2. Select one of the following options from Arrangement to specify the arrangement of models in the topology:

      Grid arranges the models in a grid pattern.
      Radial arranges the models in a radial pattern.
      Tree arranges the models in a tree structure.

  5. Configure the modeling options by selecting the required options in the Modeling Options section:
  • Create Wide Area Link Models

Determines whether Discovery creates a WA_Link model between the wide area linked interfaces of two routers. When this option is disabled, Discovery directly connects the linked interfaces.

  • Create LANs (IP Subnets)

Determines whether Discovery uses a LAN container when representing an IP Subnet. Discovery creates the LAN container during the Layer 3 mapping process to connect a router to a local LAN.

  • Remove Empty LANs

Determines whether Discovery removes any empty LAN containers that the Create LANs (IP Subnets) option creates.

  • Create “802.3” (Fanout)

Determines whether Discovery models an 802.3 Fanout segment when CA Spectrum cannot make an accurate connection among three or more interfaces. This model represents the ambiguous connections among these interfaces. However, CA Spectrum uses network traffic data (IfInOctet and ifOutOctect statistics) when the Traffic Resolution protocol option is enabled. This protocol determines connections between interfaces and, in many cases, eliminates the need to model a Fanout. 

Notes: 

  • Since CA Spectrum cannot identify the actual traffic flown path link between a device and fanout, when you try to delete one of the links, Spectrum deletes all the links that are connected to fanout.
  • If you have 50 or more connections to a single Fanout model, consider changing the model to a Shared Media Link. The Shared Media Links must be modeled manually. These models can provide more control over fault management behavior when multiple connections are monitored. Unlike a Fanout model, Shared Media Links provide configurable thresholds for handling downstream connections that report problems. For example, a Fanout model reports a problem only when all downstream connections are down. However, a Shared Media Link can report the problem sooner, as when 60 percent of the downstream connections are down.

  • Create Physical Addresses

Determines whether to create a physical address model for a MAC address that a switch hears but not associates with any modeled device. The layer 2 mapper attempts to find a connection for each address found. If a connection is found, a Fanout is created and the physical address is associated to it through Connects_To. If no connection is found, the model is placed in Lost and Found.

Important! We recommend that you do not enable this option to avoid performance issues.
  • New Devices in Maintenance Mode

Determines whether CA Spectrum places the newly discovered devices directly into maintenance mode.

  • Create Wireless Access Points

Determines whether the Discovery creates models of Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to a particular controller given in the Discovery list. SNMP disabled APs and APs which are not mentioned in the discovery list are modeled as AccessPoint models (AccessPoint models).

  • Activation Timeout (in minutes)

Determines the number of minutes that Discovery waits for new models to activate before mapping their connectivity. When the timeout expires without any new devices activating, connectivity is established to the possible extent. Connectivity occurs regardless of whether all connections to discovered devices have activated.Limits: 5-15 minutes.

  1. Specify the protocol that is used in connectivity mapping process by performing the following steps:
    1. Click Protocol Options.
    2. Select the required options:

      IP Address Tables - Determines whether to use IP address tables when mapping. When disabled, Discovery disables Layer 3 mapping and maps only the Layer 2 connections. Additionally, Discovery disables the following options:

      • IP Route Tables Protocol
      • Create Wide Area Link Model
      • Create LANs (IPSubnets)
      • Remove Empty LANs.

      IP Route Tables - determines whether to use the IP Address Table when mapping routers. By default, this option is not selected because these tables can be large and can take time to read. When this option is enabled, CA Spectrum cannot map unnumbered IP interfaces (0.0.0.0).
      Source Address Tables - Determines whether Discovery uses the device Source Address table when mapping layer 2 connectivity.
      Discovery Protocol Tables - Determines whether Discovery uses the Discovery Protocol tables when mapping device connectivity. Supported discovery protocols include Cisco, Nortel, Cabletron Switch, Extreme, Alcatel, Foundry, and Link Layer.
      ARP Tables for Pingables - Determines whether Discovery uses the ARP table when determining MAC addresses that can be used for the connectivity mapping.
      Spanning Tree - Determines whether Discovery uses the device Spanning Tree Address table (SAT) when mapping Layer 2 connectivity information about the device.
      Traffic Resolution - Determines whether Discovery uses network traffic data when determining connections between interfaces. In many cases, letting Discovery to use the traffic data eliminates the need to model Fanout segments.
      ATM Protocols - Determines whether the ATM Discovery runs against all ATM switches in the SpectroSERVER database.

      Note: For more information about ATM Protocols, see ATM Circuit Manager.

    3. Click OK in the Protocol Options dialog.
  2. Configure the Network Services Options by performing the following actions:
    1. Click Network Services Options.
    2. Select the options to specify the network services to run during the modeling process.

      Note: OneClick displays the options that are based on the installed components.

    3. Click OK.
  3. Configure the filtering options by performing the following actions:
    1. Click Filter Options.
    2. Specify the parameters to exclude selected discovered devices from modeling.
    3. (Optional) Click Show Advanced and create a complex filter criterion that includes a combination of the AND/OR clauses.
    4. (Optional) Click the ‘Hints’ link for more information.
    5. Click OK in the Advanced Filter dialog.
  4. (Optional) Click 'results table' in the Auto Export section and specify the file format in the drop-down to export modeling results automatically.
  5. (Optional) Click 'status information (plain text only)' in the Auto Export section to automatically export the status information of the discovered devices.
  6. Click OK in the Modeling Configuration dialog.

(Optional) Define the Advanced Options

Define Advanced Options to perform one of the following Discovery configuration procedures:

  • Define the SNMP ports in addition to the default port (161).
  • Exclude a specific IP address from Discovery.
  • Modify the default settings for ICMP, route tables, throttle, time-out, and retries.
  • Manage the export of Discovery results.

Follow these steps:

  1. Click Advanced Options.
  2. Type a new port number in the SNMP Ports section and click Add.
  3. Type an IP address or range in the IP Exclusion List section and click Add.
  4. Modify the following settings in the Discovery Options section:

    Use ICMP first, then SNMPUses ICMP when discovering devices. If ICMP is enabled, Discovery pings the devices in the ranges or subnets first. The devices that responded to ICMP are then queried using SNMP. This option reduces the number of SNMP requests, especially when multiple SNMP community strings are being used.Use Route TablesIdentifies the neighbor routers and the routed subnets from the IP route tables. Use this option only if seed routers are specified in the Discovery configuration.ThrottleStaggers the processing workload of Discovery by pausing for one second after reading the routing table entries, if there are more than 1000 entries. Select High, Medium, or Low to pause after reading 50, 100, or 250 entries, respectively.Timeout (in seconds)Specifies the number of seconds that Discovery waits for the response from a device.RetriesSpecifies the number of attempts that Discovery makes after the first attempt times out before establishing contact.ICMP Payload SizeSpecifies the payload size in bytes. This option is only available if you have selected ‘Use ICMP, then SNMP.’Secure DomainSpecifies the secured domain.Note: This option is available only if you have the Secure Domain Manager installed. For more information, see the Secure Domain Manager section.

  5. Do one of the following steps in the Auto Export section:
    • To disable auto export, select ‘Do not export results’.
    • To enable auto export, select the file format that you want to export in, followed by the type of results you want to export.
  6. Click OK.

(Optional) Define the Schedule Options

Configure the scheduling options to run the configuration. If the configuration is scheduled, the schedule name is displayed in the Scheduling Options section.

Follow these steps:

  1. Click Select in the Scheduling Options section.
  2. Create a schedule.

Activate the Discovery Session

Activate the Discovery session after defining all parameters.

Follow these steps:

  1. (Optional) Click 'Save options as default' to save the current configuration settings as the default configuration.
  2. Select Discover to activate the Discovery session.
  3. Click File, Close when the modeling process is complete.

    The network is discovered and modeled.

The network entities and their connections are represented graphically in the Topology tab. Icons that are created, placed, and connected within the OneClick topology views represent various aspects of a modeled network.

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